Federalism i.e. at least two levels of government + division of powers + constitution + independent courts to resolve disputes between governments. If there is a government at two levels, there must be some kind of relationship between the two; If both work together, then the situation will be of co-operative federalism, if they work in competition to get ahead of each other, then the situation will be of competitive federalism, if the bitterness or mistrust between the two increases then the situation will be of conflict federalism. And if both come to the attack on each other, then the situation will be of aggressive federalism.

In this article, we will discuss cooperative federalism in a simple and easy way and try to understand its various important aspects, so read the article till the end.

co-operative federalism
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What is Federalism ?

The makers of the Constitution had laid its foundation in the Constitution of India itself that India would be a federal system country. Only then the dual government system was adopted, the powers were divided between the center and the state and three lists were made for this (Union List, State List and Concurrent List), independent judiciary was created, bicameral legislature was adopted and Arrangements like the Inter-State Council were brought in. This is the basis of the federal system and Article 1 of our constitution also says that ‘India is a union of states’.

On the whole, a single political system consists of a mixed system of government where there is a central government and several provincial governments and the powers of both are divided in such a way that both can take decisions and implement them independently. To be able to do is called Federalism .

co-operative federalism

Co-operative federalism is a concept in which the center and the states establish a relationship and solve their problems in cooperation with each other. Similarly, the State and the Panchayat or Municipality also establish a cooperative relationship with each other and solve their problems. Such a position reflects the vertical relationship of federalism, the core of which lies in the fact that no one is superior to the Center and the states. 

Similarly, the horizontal relationship of federalism is also conceived, when the state and the state or panchayat and panchayat or municipality and municipality seek solutions to their problems by establishing cooperative relations with each other.

Usually all the dimensions of federalism can be seen at the same time. Like there is a BJP government at the center and there is a BJP government in many states too. In such a situation, there is a natural part of cooperation with BJP ruled states and BJP ruled Centre. The plans, laws or orders of the center etc. are well followed in these states. Similarly, the Center also listens to these states and these states also get priority in many things. Overall, it presents a fine example of cooperative federalism.

On the other hand, if we look at those states in which there is no BJP government, then there can be a feeling of competition there. There can be a competition to get ahead of each other in some things. That is, it can show the form of competitive federalism . For example, the situation before the introduction of GST can be seen. Where the states had the right to tax things according to their own accord and they had full freedom that they could tax as much as they wanted on a particular item in their state. But after the NDA government came, GST was brought. Cooperative federalism was also one of the reasons behind bringing this system in which emphasis was laid on the participation of all the states and efforts were made to bring uniformity in tax collection. 

If we look at those states in which there is no BJP government, then there may be a conflict or dispute situation with the Center on a number of issues. For example, the Center passed the CAA but many states refused to accept it and also passed a resolution for it in their assembly. Although such an attitude of the states has nothing to do with it, there is a strange kind of bitterness between the two, at least the spirit of cooperation is not visible at all. Such a situation is called conflictual federalism.

Sometimes the situation gets so bad that the Center and the state get into a fight. The state starts killing the workers of the central government or gets involved in violence against each other. Such a position is called aggressive federalism.

Overall, cooperative federalism is a good position in which the center and the state together, rising above their party politics, try to establish uniformity in the policy and administrative systems. And it works to bridge the gap between the center and the state and the state and the state. Viewed from this perspective, the concept of cooperative federalism seems to be very suitable for promoting unity, integrity and fraternity in India. 

Indian federal system is a co-operative federal system.

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Hope you have understood co-operative federalism, the links of some articles are being given below, must read them too.


संवैधानिक उपचारों का अधिकार
मूल अधिकारों एवं निदेशक तत्वों में टकराव
विधि की सम्यक प्रक्रिया क्या है?
संविधान की मूल संरचना
संविधान संशोधन की पूरी प्रक्रिया
राज्य के नीति निदेशक तत्व (DPSP)
संसदीय व्यवस्था
केंद्र-राज्य विधायी संबंध
केंद्र-राज्य प्रशासनिक संबंध
केंद्र-राज्य वित्तीय संबंध
मूल कर्तव्यों को समझिए
Types of writ and its scope
Conflict b/w Fundamental Rights and DPSP
Procedure established by law
Kesavananda Bharati Case 
process of constitutional amendment
AK Gopalan case 1950
Directive Principles of State Polic
Federal System of India
Centre-State Legislative Relations
Centre-State Administrative Relations
Centre-State Financial Relations