In this article, we will discuss many other Types of Majority in a simple and concise manner and try to understand its concept; So to understand well, definitely read till the end of this article as well as read other articles related to it.

Majority plays a major role in the process of constitutional amendment . In that process mainly three types of majority are used. But there are other types of majority as well. Let’ s understand…

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Types of Majority
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What are the types of majority ?

The word majority is often used in the sense of voting. It is generally of four types – (1) Simple Majority (2) Absolute Majority (3) Effective Majority and (4) Special Majority . Let us understand it one by one;

Simple Majority

Almost everyone is aware of this. It means – more than 50 percent of the total members present or the members participating in the voting. That is, if 100 people are voting, then the consent of at least 51.

This is mostly used in normal situations such as – no confidence motion, money bill, general bill, etc.

Absolute Majority

In this too, only the consent of more than 50 percent of the members is counted, but the only difference is that the vacant seats are also counted in this. This means that the member who is absent is also counted. For example, if it is to be used in the Lok Sabha, then the consent of at least 273 members is necessary even if not many members are present in the assembly.

It is especially used at the time of forming the government. You must have also heard, it is often said that such a government is a government of absolute majority.

Effective Majority

It is the opposite of absolute majority. Where the vacant seats are also counted in it, the number of vacant seats is left in it. That is, 50 percent or more of what is present.

It is commonly used during impeachment. For example, if the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the Deputy Speaker of the Rajya Sabha is to be removed from the post.

Special Majority

Many types of Special Majority have been discussed in the Constitution of India. Let us see it one by one.

Special majority under Article 368

Most of the provisions of the constitution are amended by this. According to Article 368, it means a majority of the total members of each House and two-thirds majority of the members present and voting on that day.

Understand it with this example – For example, if we talk about Lok Sabha, there are a total of 545 members. Now take out its simple majority, it becomes 273. That is, this is what is needed. With this, now let’s assume that only 420 members are present in the Lok Sabha on the day the voting is to be held and all of them will participate in the voting, then they should have a two-thirds majority . That is, the consent of 280 members also.

In all, if the consent of 280 members is obtained, then both the conditions will be fulfilled. This is called special majority. Fundamental Rights,  Directive Principles of State Policy etc. are amended by such special majority .

Special majority under Article 249

Special majority has also been discussed under Article 249 . The only difference between this and the special majority under Article 368 is that the special majority under Article 247 requires only two-thirds consent of the members participating in the voting.

At the same time, in addition to the two-thirds consent of the members present and voting in Article 368, a majority (50 percent or more) of the total members is also necessary.

Special majority under Article 61

There is another special majority . Which is mentioned in Article 61 . Article 61 is actually about the impeachment of the President. It is used when the President is to be impeached. For this, the consent of two-thirds of the total members of the House is necessary.

The impeachment of the President is not a common thing and it is not often discussed, that is why we are generally unaware about it.

By a special majority of the Parliament as well as by the recommendation of half the State Legislature

Any amendment related to the federal structure of India requires the approval of at least half of the state legislatures along with a special majority of the Parliament. Remember here that a special majority is required from the Parliament, but in the State Legislature , the work is done with a simple majority.

The following topics related to the federal structure can be seen-

The election of the President and its procedure. (Articles 54 and 55)
️ Extension of the powers of the Central and State Executive. (Articles 73 and 162)
️ Supreme Court and High Court . (Article 241, Chapter 4 of Part 5 of the Constitution and Chapter 5) of Part 6
️ Division of legislative powers between the Center and the State. (Chapter 1 of Part 11 of the Constitution)
Any matter relating to the Seventh Schedule.
️ Representation of States in Parliament.
The power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and the procedure for the same (Article 368).

Overall this is what the majority are of different types, hopefully you must have become familiar with all types of majority. Read some more great articles from here

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