Various types of Parliamentary Motions , Parliamentary Resolutions, Question Hour and Zero Hour etc. come as instruments of parliamentary proceedings.
In this article, we will discuss Parliamentary motions in a simple and easy way, its types and features, and look at its various important aspects, So to understand well, definitely read the article till the end as well as read other related articles as well. Read all parliament Articles – 🏢 Parliament
What is the Parliamentary Motions ?
Motion is a suggestion brought before the House to know the decision of the House or its opinion. The number of members in the house is more and the time is less, in such a situation it is difficult to know the opinion or desire of the house. That is why the proposal has been arranged. Any member can put his opinion or desire before the House, if it is accepted by the House, then it is believed that this is the wish or opinion of the whole House.
But it is not necessary that all the members agree with that motion, in such a situation, the members have the right to amend and change it. If a member does not agree with the original motion, he can move an amendment or a substitute motion.
If a motion is moved on behalf of the government, it is called a government motion and a motion moved by other members is called a non-official motion .
Government motion is usually to obtain approval from the House for a policy or action. On the other hand, a non-governmental proposal is usually to seek the opinion or views of the government on an issue.
What are the types of parliamentary motions?
Parliamentary motions are divided into three main categories. 1. Substantive-Motion 2. Substitute Motion 3. Subsidiary Motion.
1. Substantive-Motion : – This motion is an independent motion in itself, that is, it neither depends on any other motion nor does it arise from any other motion. For example – motion of thanks, motion of no confidence, motion of impeachment, motion of adjournment on a matter of public importance etc.
2. Substitute Motion :- It is the motion which is offered as a substitute in place of the original motion. If the House accepts it, the original motion is adjourned.
3. Subsidiary Motion : – It is such a motion, which has no meaning in itself, it cannot be passed in the House unless there is a reference to its original motion. That is, the propositions in this category depend on or are related to some other proposition. It has three categories.
(1) Ancillary Motion : – This proposal is recognized as a regular measure for further action of various types of works. Like whether a bill is sent to a select or joint committee or that bill should be considered or that bill is passed.
(2) Superseding Motion :It is also called a substituent motion because it is brought in relation to some other matter during the debate on a matter and it is brought to take the place of that case. Such as – motion to send the bill again to a committee, motion to adjourn the debate on the bill, etc.
(3) Amendment Motion :- It is brought to change or replace only some part of the original motion.
How is a parliamentary motion introduced?
The Speaker of the House fixes a fixed day for the mover to move the motion and deliver a speech on it. The Speaker then places the motion before the House. Then amendment or replacement motions are moved (if any).
After the members and the minister have spoken thereon, the mover may speak again and may also answer any questions raised thereon. After this discussion it is put up for voting. The same procedure is followed in both the houses.
Some other important parliamentary Motions
Apart from the above motions, there are many other types of motions as a means of parliamentary proceedings, which are used from time to time. Such proposals can be seen below;
No confidence motion
Article 75 of the Constitution clearly states that the Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. This means that the Council of Ministers is there only as long as it has a majority in the House or so long as the House has confidence in it. A motion of no confidence is brought to ascertain this belief. Prior notice is required to bring this proposal.
The consent of at least 50 members is mandatory in support of the motion. If this is done, the Speaker allows it to be introduced in the House. After getting permission, it has to be debated within 10 days. Its views are known to the Government and then the Speaker fixes the day for discussion.
If the government wants, a debate can be started on that at the same time. When the members give their views on this motion, then all the allegations against the government are usually answered by the Prime Minister himself. When the discussion on this is over, the process of voting on it begins.
The members who have moved a no-confidence motion also have the right to withdraw it. The Rajya Sabha has no power to consider a no-confidence motion.
The no-confidence motion is brought against the entire Council of Ministers and if it is passed by the Lok Sabha, the Council of Ministers has to resign.
A motion of censure differs from a motion of no-confidence because the motion of no-confidence does not mention the reasons on which it is based. Whereas in the motion of condemnation it is necessary to mention why it is being brought and with what subject it is related.
A censure motion is brought against the entire Council of Ministers, against a few ministers or against any one minister to express regret, anger, surprise or condemnation for any of his actions.
Even if this motion is passed by the House, then there is no need to resign from the government.
Such a motion is moved by a member to end the debate. If the motion is passed, then the debate is stopped there and it is put up for voting. Generally there are four types of cut motions :-
1. Simple cut : This motion is moved by a member with the intention that sufficient discussion has been held on the matter and that it be put to vote.
2. Components Cut : In this motion, a particular part of a bill is grouped together and during the debate only that is debated and the whole part is put to vote.
3. Kangaroo Cut Motion: In this type of motion, only important clauses are debated and voted on. The remaining clauses are omitted and considered passed.
4. Guillotine Motion : When any part of a bill or resolution cannot be discussed, then this motion is brought for discussion before voting.
It deals with breach of privileges by a minister. This motion is moved by a member when he feels that the minister has not disclosed the correct facts or has violated the privileges of the House or one or more members of the House by giving false information. Its purpose is also to condemn in a way.
This motion is brought when a member of the House, with the advance permission of the Presiding Officer of the House, wishes to draw the attention of a Minister to a matter of urgent public importance. Such as – any accident, disturbance, strike etc. This system was started in 1954.
The main purpose of Calling Attention Motion is that the Minister should make an authorized statement on a matter of an urgent nature. That is, this is just to get attention, there is neither regular discussion nor voting on this.
It is a motion to adjourn the proceedings of the House for discussion in the House on a matter of urgent public importance, for which the support of 50 members is required. This motion can be introduced in both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. Any member of the House can move this motion.
The adjournment motion is discussed for not less than two and a half hours. That is why there are some limitations of adjournment motion for the proceedings of the house –
1. Through this only such issues can be raised which are definite, factual, extremely important and of public importance
2. It does not include more than one issue.
3. Through this, only an important subject of current events can be raised and not a matter of general importance
4. Through this the question related to privilege cannot be raised
5. Through this, any such subject cannot be discussed, which has been discussed in the same session.
6. Through this no matter can be discussed which is sub-judice in the court.
7. Under this it is not considered appropriate to raise matters like political situation, anarchy, unemployment, rail accidents etc.
⚫ In this resolution, such matters can be raised which are directly or indirectly related to the conduct or any defect of the Government of India.
⚫ The discussion on this proposal usually starts at 4 pm and goes on till 6:30 pm. After everyone has spoken, the minister speaks and also answers the questions. Then it is voted on. If this is not passed, then the House resumes functioning from where it was stopped due to this motion. And if it is passed then it is considered a condemnation of the government.
vote of thanks
The President addresses the House in the first session of every general election and in the first session of every financial year. In his address, the President draws the blueprint of the policies and plans of the government in the previous year and the coming year. This speech of the President is discussed in both the houses, there is a debate on it. This is called a vote of thanks .
After the debate is over, the motion is put to vote. This motion needs to be passed in the House. If it is not passed, it is considered a defeat of the government.
Unallotted day – This is a motion which the Speaker keeps without fixing any date for discussion. The Speaker, after discussion with the Leader of the House or in consultation with the Business Advisory Committee of the House, fixes a day or time for such a motion.
Justification question – When the general rules are not being followed during the operation of the House, a member can draw the attention of the House through a point of order. It is usually raised by the opposition member to control the government as it brings to an end the proceedings of the House. No debate is allowed in a point of order.
Half an hour debate – It is for discussion on matters of substantial public importance etc. The Speaker may fix three days in a week for such debate. For this there is no formal motion or voting in the House.
Short term discussion – It is also called a two-hour discussion because it does not take more than two hours for such a discussion. Members of Parliament can put up any matter of urgent public importance for such debate. The Speaker may provide three days in a week for debate on it.
| Overall, these are parliamentary motions that are used during parliamentary proceedings. Another means of parliamentary proceedings is the parliamentary resolution , which is used in the Parliament similar to a motion. This article gets bigger, that’s why the resolution has been discussed in the next article. Be sure to read it – parliamentary resolution