Executive and judiciary are two very important institutions, that is why its understanding is very important. In this article we will discuss executive and judiciary in a simple and easy way. And learn how to read it so as to remember. So do read it till the end.
How to understand executive and judiciary
According to the Constitution, from Article 52 to Article 237, the Central Executive, State Executive, Supreme Court and other Courts and Parliament and State Legislature have been discussed. Broadly speaking, from Article 52 to Article 151, the executive and judiciary of the Center are discussed. At the same time, from Article 152 to Article 237, there is a discussion of the executive and judiciary of the state.
We make a mistake in understanding this that first we read the executive, parliament, court etc. of the center, then we study the state. Something similar is written in the constitution as well. But if we read it in such a way that first read the President and then immediately after that read the Governor, then it becomes very easy to understand.
That is why we will read it in such a systematic and orderly manner, so that the paragraph is also remembered and understood completely. How we are going to read it, we discuss it further. Let us first understand the executive and judiciary very well.
What is the executive?
Executive simply means the one who executes any work. If you start from home, then you will find that a member of the household sets the policy, and also gets it to be followed, all the members follow it. Usually we call that person the Guardian.
The same work is also done at the country level. There is also someone in the role of the Guardian, which we have chosen ourselves. Out of these elected people who make rules, regulations and laws, we call it Legislature. And the one who implements the laws made by the legislature, we call it the executive .
So overall the executive is such a small group of persons who enforce the rules and regulations. Now the question comes that what are the types of executives. You can see this chart to see how many types of executive are there.
Types of Executive
There is no presidential executive system in our country. In fact, in this system, the constitutional and real executive and the head of the nation is the President. And he has no accountability to the legislature. America for example.
Our country does not even have a semi-presidential executive system. In fact, in this system, both the Prime Minister and the President are directly elected. This system is in Russia and Sri Lanka.
Our country is a parliamentary executive . That is, here the Prime Minister is the head of government, the President is the constitutional head, the President has nominal powers. The Prime Minister is elected by direct vote but the President by indirect vote.
As we know that we are living in a federal system country. That is, here the center and the state have their separate existence. So it is natural that both will also have their own executive. Now the question comes that who is actually the executive in the government? What is a Permanent Executive?
Who is the executive?
We know that whichever government comes to power can form a council of ministers with 15 percent of the total members of the Lok Sabha. This is the Council of Ministers, this is the executive. In this council of ministers, along with some main ministries, there are many smaller ministries. Many smaller ministries work under a larger ministry.
There are some ministers from this council of ministers who handle the most important ministries of the country. Such as Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Environment etc. They are around 14-15, and if said, here is the chief executive, it is called cabinet. And it is presided over by the Prime Minister. Since all of them are elected by political means, hence it is also called political executive.
There is also a permanent executive, which we call the bureaucrat. Like an IAS officer. These people work in the background. It is connected in some way or the other with every work done by the government, to be honest, these bureaucrats play a big role in implementing any law on the ground. But since they do not come by choice, they are usually secondary. And it is rarely discussed.
| According to the constitution, generally 5 executives are at the central level and 4 executives are at the state level. This is the Chief Executive, after which all the executives come under it.
At the level of the Union there is the President, Prime Minister, Vice-President, Cabinet and Attorney General. Similarly, at the state level, there is the Governor, the Chief Minister, the State Cabinet and the State Advocate General.
The best way to understand the executive is to understand the Governor immediately after understanding the President and Vice President, and in the same way, understand the Chief Minister immediately after understanding the Prime Minister. That is, first the center and then the state, first the center and then the state. This will be easy to understand, as there are many similarities between the two.
Articles of the executive and judiciary
Here we are giving a chart which are the articles related to central and state executive and judiciary. We will study further on this basis. All links are given; You can also visit it from here.
Article 52 to Article 151
Article 152 to Article 237
|From Article 52 to Article 78, there is a discussion of the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers and Attorney General.||From Article 152 to Article 167, there is a discussion of the Governor, Chief Minister, State Council of Ministers and Advocate General.|
|There is a discussion of Parliament from Article 79 to Article 123 .||From Article 168 to Article 213, there is a discussion of the State Legislature.|
|From Article 124 to Article 147, there is a discussion of the Supreme Court.||Articles 214 to 232 are discussed in the High Court.|
|From Article 148 to Article 151 CAG i.e. Comptroller and Auditor General.||From Article 233 to Article 237, there is a discussion of the Subordinate Courts.|
There are other articles which are related to this, but this is the main article.
Here is a structure according to which you will read the next articles. Trust me, when you read it this way, you will be able to understand everything easily. I think this article has become very big, that is why the discussion of judiciary will not be appropriate here. I am giving the link below.
Before reading the Supreme Court, High Court and Subordinate Courts, it is important that you understand the overall structure of the Indian Judiciary. That is why definitely understand the overall structure of the judiciary, read it now by clicking here.
Read the overall structure of the judiciary