In this article, we will discuss 15+ DNA facts in a simple and easy way and also provide a link to other important topics related to it, which will help you to understand DNA from zero level.
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DNA is the molecule inside cells that contains the genetic information responsible for the development and function of an organism. DNA molecules allow this information to be passed from one generation to the next.
DNA is a structure composed of a double-stranded helix, linked together by weak hydrogen bonds between purine–pyrimidine nucleotide base pairs: adenine (A), thymine (T), and guanine (G). ) associates with cytosine (C). It is also called deoxyribonucleic acid.
Note – Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are placed under Purine. While Thymine (T) and Cytosine (C) are placed under Pyrimidine.
Facts Where is DNA found?
1. In eukaryotes, that is, multicellular organisms, DNA is found inside a special region of the cell called the nucleus. Because the cell is so small, and because organisms contain many DNA molecules per cell, each DNA molecule is tightly packed. This packed form of DNA is called chromosome .
2. During DNA replication, the DNA is unwinded so that it can be copied. However, at other times in the cell cycle, DNA also opens up, making it possible to use its instructions to make proteins and other biological processes. But during cell division, DNA is in its compact chromosome form to enable transfer to new cells.
3. Researchers call the DNA found in the nucleus of the cell as nuclear DNA. The complete set of nuclear DNA of an organism is called its genome.
4. In addition to DNA located in the nucleus, humans and other complex organisms also contain a small amount of DNA in cell structures called mitochondria . Remember here that mitochondria produce the energy that the cell needs to function properly.
5. Mitochondrial DNA is the small circular chromosome found inside the mitochondria. Mitochondria are organelles found in cells, which are sites of energy production. Mitochondrial DNA is passed from mother to offspring.
6. In sexual reproduction, organisms inherit half of their nuclear DNA from the male parent and half from the female parent. However, organisms inherit all their mitochondrial DNA from the female parent. This is because during fertilization only egg cells retain their mitochondria , not sperm cells.
Also read – DNA – Simple and Accurate Pictorial Analysis
Facts What is DNA made of?
1. DNA is made up of chemical building blocks called nucleotides. These building blocks are made up of three parts: a phosphate group , a sugar group , and one of four types of nitrogenous bases . DNA is a ladder-like structure with two strands. Those edges are nothing but phosphate and sugar groups that look like this when they are joined together in turn. Something like this shown in the picture;
2. There are four types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides : adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The sequence or particular arrangement of these bases determines which biological instructions are contained in a strand of DNA. For example, the sequence ATCGTT may give instructions for blue eyes, while the sequence ATCGCT may instruct for brown eyes.
3. The complete DNA instruction manual for humans, or rather the genome, consists of about 3 billion bases on 23 pairs of chromosomes and about 20,000 genes.
| What is the difference between a gene and a genome?
Genes are segments of DNA that contain instructions for making molecules that make the body work. Most molecules are proteins. Parents pass on their genes to their offspring.
A genome is all the genetic material in an organism. It is made up of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) and contains genes and other elements that control the activity of those genes.
यह भी पढ़ें – DNA and RNA : Differences and Similarities
Facts What does DNA do?
1. DNA contains the instructions necessary for the growth, survival and reproduction of an organism. To perform these functions, DNA sequences have to be converted into messages that can be used to produce proteins, which are complex molecules, and which do most of the work in our bodies. .
2. Each DNA sequence that contains instructions for making proteins is known as a gene. Genes only make up about 1 percent of the DNA sequence. Beyond this 1%, the DNA sequence controls when, how, and how much of the protein is made.
| How are DNA sequences used to make proteins?
The instructions for DNA to make proteins are used in two steps. First, enzymes read the information in a DNA molecule and transcribe it into a mediator molecule called messenger ribonucleic acid or mRNA.
Next, the information contained in the mRNA molecule is translated into the “language” of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins . This language tells the cell’s protein-making machinery the exact sequence in which amino acids are combined to produce a specific protein.
This is a major function because there are 20 types of amino acids, which can be arranged in many different sequences to make different types of proteins.
DNA Facts Who discovered DNA?
Swiss biochemist Friedrich Mischer first observed DNA in the late 1800s. However, he could not explain everything. Then come Elbrechl Kausil, who carried on Mischer’s work, and Theodor Leeven, who also joins the DNA research work to further improve the understanding of DNA.
Altogether, for many years, scientists debated which molecule contained the biological instructions for life. Most people thought that DNA is too simple a molecule to play such an important role. Instead, they argued that proteins were more likely to perform this important function because of their greater complexity and wider diversity.
The importance of DNA became apparent in 1953 thanks to the work of James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin. By studying X -ray diffraction patterns and building models, the scientists detected the double helix structure of DNA – a structure that enables it to carry biological information from one generation to the next.
Facts What is DNA Double Helix?
1. Scientists use the term ” double helix ” to describe the curved, double-stranded chemical structure of DNA. This shape – which looks like a twisted ladder – gives DNA the power to pass along biological instructions with great precision.
To understand the double helix of DNA, from a chemical point of view, depict the sides of the ladder as alternating sugar and phosphate groups . Each “color” of the ladder is made up of two nitrogen bases, which are linked together by hydrogen bonds .
Due to the highly specific nature of this type of chemical pairing, Adenine (A) always pairs with Thymine (T), and so on with Cytosine (C), Guanine (G). Therefore, if you know the sequence of bases on one strand of the DNA double helix, it becomes easier to trace the sequence of bases on the other strand.
2. The unique structure of DNA enables the molecule to copy or duplicate itself during cell division . When a cell prepares to divide, the DNA helix splits down the middle and becomes two single strands.
These single strands serve as templates for the formation of two new, double-stranded DNA molecules. In this process, wherever there is Thymine, it attaches to the Adenine base, and wherever there is Guanine, it binds to Cytosine. And so on until his partner comes once again at all the bases, then this process goes on.
Furthermore, when the protein is being made, the double helix allows the single strand of DNA to serve as a template. This template strand is then transcribed into mRNA, a molecule that gives important instructions to the cell’s protein-making machinery.
Facts What is recombinant DNA or rDNA?
Recombinant DNA ( rDNA ) is a technique where enzymes are used to cut and paste together DNA sequences of your choice. Recombinant DNA sequences can be placed into vehicles called vectors, which carry the DNA to a suitable host cell, where it can be copied.
In other words, DNA which is made artificially by combining components of different organisms is called recombinant DNA.
| What is DNA cloning?
DNA fragments, such as human DNA, can be engineered in a fashion that allows them to be copied or replicated in bacteria or yeast. It involves adding appropriate elements to a piece of DNA and then transferring those elements to a bacterial or yeast cell, then the bacteria or yeast cell copies this DNA with its own DNA. This process is known as DNA cloning , the resulting cloned DNA is often called recombinant DNA.
Also read – Cell Division – What, When and How? [Facts]
| The role of DNA in aging
It is believed that DNA damage is repaired more rapidly when we are of reproductive age, or have children. When we cross our peak reproductive years, the repair process naturally slows down.
Another part of DNA that may be involved in aging is the telomeres . Telomeres are stretches of repetitive DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes. They help protect DNA from damage, but they also shorten with each round of DNA replication.
Several studies link telomere shortening with the aging process. Certain lifestyle factors such as obesity, exposure to cigarette smoke and psychological stress can also contribute to shortening of telomere.
| What is mitochondrial DNA?
Mitochondrial DNA is the small circular chromosome found inside the mitochondria. Mitochondria are organelles found in cells, which are sites of energy production. Mitochondrial DNA is passed from mother to offspring.
There is a certain type of DNA inside the mitochondrion. It is in a way different from the DNA present in the nucleus. This DNA is short and circular. It consists of only 16,500 base pairs. It encodes various proteins that are specific for mitochondrial.
| What is the function of DNA?
DNA is the custodian of genetic information and the carrier of genetic instructions. These messages are copied very securely and passed from one cell to another and from one generation to another.
| How is DNA made in cells?
A new DNA molecule is formed when a protein that is released breaks the strands of the coil. Due to which the ladder poles are also separated. Every thread in the horoscope is a copy of its previous partner. In this way two identical DNA molecules are formed. Reproduction of genes takes place in this way and they pass from one generation to the next.
| Does DNA change?
When living cells divide, both parts receive a copy of the DNA. A special type of protein does proof reading, so that the correct letters are selected. And so that there is no mistake in the copy of DNA, but no one is perfect. Sometimes there is a mistake in proof reading, and there is a change in the genetic instruction.
The consequences of this small incident come to the fore in a big way. Such as – variation in skin color, variation in physical appearance, etc.
| What is genetic testing?
genetic test, also known as DNA test; It is a method of tracing genetic relationships and changes. In this, parents, family, lineage, lineage or ethnic group are traced. DNA tests are mostly done for the purpose of medical treatment and to gather specific information in criminal cases. Apart from this, it is also done to settle inheritance and property disputes or other types of emotional issues.
For DNA testing, samples of the person’s blood, hair, skin and amniotic fluid etc. are taken. (The fluid that surrounds the fetus in pregnancy is called amniotic fluid.)
So overall these were some important facts related to DNA; Hope you have understood, read other articles related to this and share it.
National Human Genome research Institute
DNA – Simple and Accurate Pictorial Analysis
DNA and RNA : Differences and Similarities