Everything is not so clear and easy to know about it immediately, some things need exploration to know. This is what the Central Bureau of Investigation does.

In this article, we will explore the Central Bureau of Investigation, and understand its various important aspects; So for better understanding, definitely read this article till the end, you will get to know a lot.

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Central Bureau of Investigation

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History of Central Bureau of Investigation

The Special Police Establishment (SPE) was established in 1941 by the then Government of India to investigate cases of bribery and corruption in dealings with the War and Supplies Department of British India during the Second World War.  At that time this agency worked under the War Department.

After the end of the war, the Central Government felt the need for an investigative agency to investigate cases of bribery and corruption relating to the employees of various Central Government institutions. Therefore, in the year 1946, the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act was implemented.

By this act the superintendence of the SPE was transferred to the Home Department and all the departments of the Government of India and even the Union Territories were brought under its purview.

In 1963, the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) was formed by the Government of India with a view to investigate serious crimes like security, corruption in higher institutions, serious fraud, fraud and misappropriation and social crimes especially hoarding and profiteering of essential commodities. to be done.

It was established through a resolution brought by the Ministry of Home Affairs. CBI derives its legal powers from the DSPE Act 1946 to investigate crime .

As mentioned above, initially its work was only to deal with corruption or bribery by central government employees. Later on, large scale public sector undertakings were set up as well as nationalization of many private institutions already available. Due to this, the scope of CBI’s investigation increased. For example, after the nationalization of banks in 1969, public sector banks and their employees also came under the scrutiny of the Central Bureau of Investigation.

Establishment of CBI

The establishment of the CBI was recommended by the Santhanam Commission (1962-64) constituted for the prevention of corruption. CBI is not a statutory body. It derives its power from the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946.

The CBI is a multi-disciplinary research agency of the Government of India, which deals with the investigation of corruption, economic offenses and traditional crimes. Remember here that CBI does not take matters related to terrorism in its own hands. For this the National Investigation Agency was established in 2008.

Generally, it confines itself to the investigation of corruption of employees of the Central Government, Union Territories and their public enterprises. It takes up cases of serious crimes like murder, kidnapping, rape etc. only when it is asked to do so by the State Governments or by the Supreme Court.

Who supervises the CBI?

CBI is the main research agency of the Central Government. It has an important role in the prevention of corruption in governance and in maintaining integrity and honesty.

The CBI is supervised by the Central Vigilance Commission in relation to the investigation of offenses committed under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 and in other cases, the CBI works under the administrative control of the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT), Ministry of Personnel.


Industry, Impartiality and Integrity


To uphold the Constitution of India and the law of the land through intensive investigation and successful prosecution of crimes, to provide leadership and direction to the police forces and to act as the nodal agency for promoting inter-state and international cooperation in law enforcement.

Organization of Central Bureau of Investigation

Over time the CBI has evolved into a multi-disciplinary investigative agency. Today it has the following 3 branches for crime investigation. Along with this, the CBI also cooperates with Interpol.

1. Anti corruption branch – This is an important branch for investigation of cases under the Prevention of Corruption Act 1988 against public servants and employees of Central Government, Public Sector Undertakings, Corporations or bodies owned or controlled by the Government of India.

2. Economic crime branch – This is an important branch for the investigation of large-scale financial scams and serious economic frauds including fake Indian currency, bank fraud and cyber crimes.

3. Special crime branch – This branch is specialized for the investigation of serious, sensational and organized crimes under the Indian Penal Code and other laws on the request of the State Governments or on the instructions of the Supreme Court and High Courts.

International Police Cooperation Branch

In this era of globalization and information technology, crimes and criminals easily cross national boundaries and go to another country for their safety. Law enforcement agencies of different countries formed an International Police Criminal Organization or INTERPOL for the purpose of catching and prosecuting similar criminals.

Role of Interpol and India’s CBI in that

CBI ensures cooperation between law enforcement agencies of India and other countries. It simplifies sharing of information by these agencies. It also publishes Red Notices of wanted fugitive criminals in India .

The CBI also serves as the “National Central Bureau” of INTERPOL in India. The Interpol Branch of CBI coordinates the investigative activities of law enforcement agencies of India and member countries of Interpol.

In addition to the above, it plays its role in negotiating and finalizing Mutual Legal Support Treaties and extradition treaties between India and other countries. CBI simplifies the execution of letters of permission for investigation in India and outside India.

What is Red Notice? 

This is a notice published by the Interpol Headquarters located in France on the request of a member country to trace a fugitive in a criminal case by all the law enforcement agencies of the member countries. If such a fugitive is detected, this information is given to the requesting country so that it can ensure action for the fugitive’s repatriation.

Formation of CBI

The CBI is headed by a Director, who acts as the Inspector General of Police. There is a special director or additional director to assist him. In addition, there are several Joint Directors, Deputy Inspector Generals, Superintendents of Police and other ranks of police personnel. Altogether it has about 5000 personnel, about 25 ‘forensic scientists’ and 250 law officers.

The administration of CBI is governed by the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act. After the passage of the Central Vigilance Commissioner Act in 2003, the CBI looks after the crime investigation under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 and is supervised by the Central Vigilance Commission. The CBI Director has been given security for a tenure of two years by the Central Vigilance Commission Act 2003.

The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act passed in 2013 amended the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act 1946 and made the following changes regarding the formation of the Central Bureau of Investigation-

1. The Director of the Central Bureau of Investigation is appointed by the Central Government on the recommendation of a three-member committee headed by the Prime Minister (consisting of the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha and the Chief Justice of India or a Judge of the Supreme Court nominated by him).

Under the Delhi Special Police Establishment (Amendment) Act, 2014 , a change was made in the composition of the Committee on Appointment of Director of the Central Bureau of Investigation. That change is that, “where there is no recognized leader of the opposition in the Lok Sabha, the leader of the largest opposition party in the Lok Sabha will be a member of the committee.”

2. For the implementation of prosecution of cases under the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act 2013, there should be a Board of Directors for Prosecution headed by a Director. This director should not be an officer below the rank of Joint Secretary to the Government of India. It will work under the control and supervision of the Central Bureau of Investigation. It will be appointed by the Central Government on the recommendation of the Central Vigilance Commission. He should remain in office for two years.

3. The Central Government should appoint officers of the Central Bureau of Investigation of the rank of District Superintendent of Police or above. This appointment is made by a committee with the Central Vigilance Commissioner as its Chairman and the Vigilance Commissioners, the Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs and the Secretary of the Department of Personnel.

Functions of Central Bureau of Investigation

(1) To investigate cases of corruption, bribery and malpractices etc. of Central Government employees.

(2) To investigate cases of violation of fiscal and economic laws, such as violation of laws relating to import-export control, customs and central excise duties, foreign exchange regulation, etc.

(3) Investigation of serious crimes committed by organized gangs of professional criminals which have national or international impact. Simultaneously, the maintenance of crime related data and the dissemination of criminal information

(4) To establish coordination between the Anti-Corruption Agencies and the various State Police Forces.

(5) To undertake for research any matter of public importance at the request of the State Government.

Important information related to Central Bureau of Investigation

Provision of prior permission – Earlier, prior permission from the Central Government was required before the CBI could initiate corruption-related investigations against officers of the rank of Joint Secretary of the Central Government and above. But on 6 May 2012, the Supreme Court struck down that provision. That is, now the CBI does not need permission to investigate these officers.

Other functions of CBI besides crime investigation

CBI has a training academy in Ghaziabad, it started functioning from 1996. Where it conducts training on various subjects not only for its officers but also for officers of other countries including officers of State and Union Territory Police Organizations, Vigilance Officers of Public Sector Undertakings, Banks etc.

Besides the CBI Academy at Ghaziabad, three Regional Training Centers are also functioning at Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai.

There are two types of training courses-

(1) Short In Service Course: For CBI Officers, State Police, Central Para Military Forces and Central Public Enterprises.

(2) Long Term Basic Course: For Directly Appointed DSP, Sub-Inspector and CBI Constables

Q. Can CBI automatically take over investigation of any type of crime that has happened anywhere in the country?

No. As per Part II of the DSPE Act, CBI can automatically investigate offenses notified by Part III only in the Union Territories. According to Part 6 of the DSPE Act, the consent of the said State is mandatory for investigation by the CBI in the jurisdiction of any one State.

The Central Government can authorize the CBI to investigate the crime committed in any State, but for this the consent of the concerned State Government is mandatory.

However , the Supreme Court and the High Courts can also direct the CBI to investigate crimes committed anywhere in the country without the consent of the State Government.

Central Forensic Science Laboratory (Cfsl)

Central Forensic Science Laboratory also known as CFSL; was established in the year 1968 as a scientific department to provide scientific aid and services for the investigation of crime. 

CFSL is a scientific department under the administrative control of CBI and overall control of Ministry of Home Affairs. The experts of CFSL examine the performances forwarded by the investigating agencies and present the expert opinion and substantiate their opinion in court through court testimony and evidence. 

The Central Forensic Science Laboratory (New Delhi) is today one of the most comprehensive laboratories in the country with 10 fully equipped departments. There is also a scientific aids department besides state-of-the-art laboratories for physics, chemistry, biology, ballistics, documents, finger prints, forensic psychology, photography, computer forensic science and DNA profiling.

Central Bureau of Investigation Jobs

The CBI recruits sub-inspectors through the Staff Selection Commission (SSC). And appoints police officers on deputation to the posts of police inspectors and above and also on deputation from state and union territories.

Non-police officers are also taken on deputation in CBI. Click on CBI Jobs ️ to get detailed information about various posts of CBI, recruitment/appointment process, details related to vacancies etc.

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