This article is a compilation of Article 43 as it is. You can understand it well, that’s why its explanation is also given below, you must read it. Its explanation is also available in Hindi, for this you can use the link given below;

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article 43
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Article 43

📜 Article 43

43. Living wage, etc., for workers.—The State shall endeavour to secure, by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way, to all workers, agricultural, industrial or otherwise, work, a living wage,
conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or co-operative basis in rural areas.

3[43A. Participation of workers in management of industries.—The State shall take steps, by suitable legislation or in any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry.]

1[43B. Promotion of co-operative societies.—The State shall endeavour to promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning, democratic control and professional management of co-operative societies.]
1. Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 9, (w.e.f. 3-1-1977).
2. Ins. by the Constitution (Ninety-seventh Amendment) Act, 2011, s. 3 (w.e.f. 15-2-2012).

🔍 Explanation

 The literal meaning of the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) is the principles that guide the policy of the  state .

When  the constitution  was framed, the people had  no experience of ruling in a democratic state and making laws in the interest of the country. Especially for the states that were about to take over after a long colonial period.

As we know that   it is not mandatory for politicians in our country to be educated. In such a situation, a guide becomes necessary so that the policy makers always know which way to go.

◾ It was not that DPSP was a new idea but   it was already working in Ireland and we took it from there.

◾ The Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) are the guidelines for making laws and policies for the welfare and development of the citizens. These are included in Part IV of the Indian Constitution.

These principles are non-enforceable, meaning they are not enforceable by the courts, however, are considered fundamental in the governance of the country and must be taken into account by the government while formulating laws and policies.

Overall, policy-directive elements are those elements of democratic and constitutional development whose objective is to establish a public-welfare state.

Classification of DPSP — Below you can see the classification of Directive Principles. This will make it easier for you to understand why the articles you are reading have been included in the DPSP and for what purposes it has been targeted.

Socialist⚫ Article 38
⚫ Article 39
⚫ Article 39A
⚫ Article 41
⚫ Article 42
⚫ Article 43
⚫ Article 43A
⚫ Article 47
Gandhian⚫ Article 40
⚫ Article 43
⚫ Article 43B
⚫ Article 46
⚫ Article 48
⚫ Article 44
⚫ Article 45
⚫ Article 48
⚫ Article 48A
⚫ Article 49
⚫ Article 50
⚫ Article 51

Apart from this, the directive elements can also be seen by dividing them into the following groups;

Welfare State Article 38 (1 and 2), Article 39 (B and C), Article 39A, Article 41, Article 42, Article 43, Article 43A and Article 47 are kept in the Policy Directive Principles of this group.

Equality of Dignity & Opportunity Articles 40, 41, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48 and 50 are kept in the policy directive elements of this group.

individual ‘s rights Articles 39A, 41, 42, 43, 45 and 47 are kept in the Policy Directive Principles of this group.

Article 36 to Article 51 comes under Part 4 of the Constitution. In this article we are going to understand Article 43 ;

⚫ Article-34 – Indian Constitution
⚫ Article-35 – Indian Constitution


| Article 43 – Living wages, etc., for workmen

The State shall endeavor to secure to all workers work, living wages, conditions of work and social and cultural opportunities ensuring a decent standard of living and full enjoyment of leisure. And especially in rural areas, efforts will be made to increase cottage industries on individual or co-operative basis.

In this case, a lot of work has been done in the field of cottage industry, for example, Khadi and Village Industries Board, Khadi and Village Industries Commission, Silk Board, Handloom Board etc.

Gandhiji was such a big supporter of cottage industry and self-reliance that at one time he asked everyone to run the charkha and make the cloth they needed. Presently it is being promoted under the Ministry of MSME.

A cottage industry in India refers to small-scale, decentralized manufacturing or handicraft production. And it is usually done by individuals or families in rural or semi-urban areas using traditional methods and simple tools.

These industries often produce goods for the local market and may include textiles, pottery, handicrafts, and other goods.

Cottage industries have been an important part of India’s economy for centuries and have been instrumental in providing employment and income for rural communities.

Under Article 43, the idea of ​​increasing the cottage industry on individual or co-operative basis has been kept.

Article 43A was made a part by amending Article 43 by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment 1976. Similarly, Article 43B was added in 2011 by the 97th Constitutional Amendment. Let us understand both these amendments;

Article 43A – Participation of workers in the management of industries

Article 43A

Under Article 43A, the State shall, by suitable legislation, take steps to enable workers to participate in the management of industries.

As we know, in a capitalist economy, the management of any industry or enterprise is with the person who invests the capital. Workers are hired on daily wage or salary.

Whereas in socialist economy there is no place for capitalist as all the means of production and their management are with the state.

In 1976, with the help of the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, three words were added to the Preamble, one of which was Socialism . And for the purpose of activating this socialism, Article 43A was inserted in DPSP.

The object of Article 43A is that workers engaged in any particular industry or enterprise, whether owned by a private person or the State, shall be given a share in the management of that industry by the Legislature.

If this happens, the result will be that the workers will no longer be hired labourers. They will have an interest in the success of that venture and will receive a share of the profits.

There is a doubt as to how the purpose of this provision will be served after the adoption of a liberal or capitalist economy.

Article 43B – Promotion of co-operative societies

Article 43B

This provision was added to the Directive Principles through the 97th Constitutional Amendment in 2011. Under this, it has been said that the state will promote voluntary formation, autonomous operation, democratic control and business management of cooperative societies.

A lot of work has been done in the field of cooperatives. Today many co-operative societies are working all over the country like  Amul , Lijjat Papad etc. Let’s understand a little about it;

Cooperative Societies in India

Cooperatives in India are organizations that are owned and controlled by their members, who are usually individuals or groups with common interests.

Co-operative societies in India were established to promote the economic and social welfare of their members. They are usually formed to provide agricultural, financial, or consumer services and may operate at various levels, such as village, district, state, or national. They follow the principle of “one member one vote”, irrespective of the share capital held by them.

Cooperative societies in India are governed by the Cooperative Societies Act and controlled by the Registrar of Cooperative Societies, who is appointed by the state government. Co-operative societies are audited annually by government approved auditors.

Cooperatives have played an important role in the Indian economy by providing services such as credit, banking, insurance and marketing of agricultural produce. They have also helped in the upliftment of the weaker sections of the society by providing easy access to loans and other services.

There are many examples of cooperatives in India, here are a few:

◾ Amul : The Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Limited (GCMMF), popularly known as Amul, is a cooperative society that was established in 1946 to promote the dairy industry in Gujarat. It is a federation of milk cooperatives and is the largest in the world with over 3.6 million milk producers as members.

◾ NAFED The National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Limited ( NAFED) is a cooperative society established in 1958 to promote marketing of agricultural produce. It operates in all the states of India and acts as a link between farmers and consumers.

◾ ICDC : The Indian Cooperative Dairy Federation ( ICDF ) is a cooperative society that was established in 1965 to promote the dairy industry in India. It is a federation of milk cooperatives and provides services like credit, marketing and technical support to its members.

◾ PACS : Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS) are cooperatives that were set up to provide loans and other services to farmers. They operate at the village level and are generally owned and controlled by their members, who are farmers.

Consumer Co- operative Store : A consumer co-operative store is a retail store that is owned and controlled by its members, who are generally consumers. These stores provide goods and services at lower prices than traditional retail stores and are found in many cities and towns across India.

These are all examples of cooperatives that are owned and controlled by their members and work for their welfare, it should be noted that there are many more types and examples of cooperatives in India and all over the world.

So overall this is Article 43, I hope you have understood. To understand other article, you can use the link given below.

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Disclaimer - The articles and their interpretations presented here are based on the original Constitution (latest edition), DD Basu's commentary on the Constitution (mainly) and various scholars of the Constitution (whose writings are available in newspapers, magazines and audio-visuals on the Internet). We have just tried to make it interesting and easy to understand.