This article is a compilation of Article 40 as it is. You can understand it well, that’s why its explanation is also given below, you must read it. Its explanation is also available in Hindi, for this you can use the link given below;
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|📖 Read This Article in Hindi|
📜 Article 40
|40. Organisation of village panchayats.—The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government.|
The literal meaning of the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) is the principles that guide the policy of the state.
When the constitution was framed, the people had no experience of ruling in a democratic state and making laws in the interest of the country. Especially for the states that were about to take over after a long colonial period.
As we know that it is not mandatory for politicians in our country to be educated. In such a situation, a guide becomes necessary so that the policy makers always know which way to go.
◾ It was not that DPSP was a new idea but it was already working in Ireland and we took it from there.
◾ The Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) are the guidelines for making laws and policies for the welfare and development of the citizens. These are included in Part IV of the Indian Constitution.
These principles are non-enforceable, meaning they are not enforceable by the courts, however, are considered fundamental in the governance of the country and must be taken into account by the government while formulating laws and policies.
Overall, policy-directive elements are those elements of democratic and constitutional development whose objective is to establish a public-welfare state.
Classification of DPSP — Below you can see the classification of Directive Principles. This will make it easier for you to understand why the articles you are reading have been included in the DPSP and for what purposes it has been targeted.
|Socialist||⚫ Article 38|
⚫ Article 39
⚫ Article 39A
⚫ Article 41
⚫ Article 42
⚫ Article 43
⚫ Article 43A
⚫ Article 47
|Gandhian||⚫ Article 40|
⚫ Article 43
⚫ Article 43B
⚫ Article 46
⚫ Article 48
|⚫ Article 44|
⚫ Article 45
⚫ Article 48
⚫ Article 48A
⚫ Article 49
⚫ Article 50
⚫ Article 51
Apart from this, the directive elements can also be seen by dividing them into the following groups;
Welfare State Article 38 (1 and 2), Article 39 (B and C), Article 39A, Article 41, Article 42, Article 43, Article 43A and Article 47 are kept in the Policy Directive Principles of this group.
Equality of Dignity & Opportunity Articles 40, 41, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48 and 50 are kept in the policy directive elements of this group.
individual ‘s rights Articles 39A, 41, 42, 43, 45 and 47 are kept in the Policy Directive Principles of this group.
Article 36 to Article 51 comes under Part 4 of the Constitution. In this article we are going to understand Article 40 ;
| Article 40 – Organization of Village Panchayats
Panchayati Raj is a system of local self government. The concept of local self-government is not new in India. From the Vedic period to the British period, the rural communities kept this system alive.
Many kingdoms were formed and destroyed during this period, but these rural communities always maintained their Panchayati existence and spirit. But when the constitution of independent India came into force, then the Panchayati Raj system could not be implemented.
That is why it was placed under the Directive Principles of State Policy. However, efforts to implement it started only a few years after the constitution came into force.
That is why it was placed under the Directive Principles of State Policy. However, efforts to implement it started only a few years after the constitution came into force. But it was fully implemented in the year 1993.
⚫ The Community Development Program was launched in 1952 to accelerate rural development and ensure people’s participation in it. To support this programme, the National Extension Service was started in 1953.
In January 1957, the Government of India constituted a committee to examine the work done by the same Community Development Program 1952 and National Extension Service 1953 and suggest measures for their better functioning.
The chairman of this committee was Balwant Rai Mehta. The committee submitted its report in November 1957 and recommended a scheme of democratic decentralization which eventually came to be known as Panchayati Raj.
The committee recommended the establishment of a three-tier Panchayati Raj system – Gram Panchayat at the village level, Panchayat Samiti at the block level and Zila Parishad at the district level .
These recommendations of the committee were accepted by the National Development Council in January, 1958. But the council did not lay down any fixed format and left it to the states to implement it in the way they wanted.
Rajasthan was the first state in the country, where Panchayati Raj was established. The scheme was inaugurated on 2 October 1959 by the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in Nagaur district of Rajasthan.
⚫ In December 1977, the Janata Party government constituted a committee on Panchayati Raj Institutions under the chairmanship of Ashok Mehta. It submitted its report in August 1978 and made 132 recommendations to revive and strengthen the decadent Panchayati Raj in the country.
He recommended changing the three-tier Panchayati Raj system into a two-tier system. Zilla Parishad at the district level, and below that the Mandal Panchayat (which should be a cluster of villages with a population of 15,000 to 20,000). This never got implemented.
⚫ In 1986, the Rajiv Gandhi government constituted a committee under the chairmanship of LM Singhvi to prepare a concept paper on the revival of Panchayati Raj institutions for democracy and development.
The most important thing he did was to give constitutional recognition to Panchayati Raj Institutions because it had not got constitutional recognition till now. It also advised to make constitutional provision for holding regular free and fair elections for Panchayati Raj development.
Rajiv Gandhi Government: The Rajiv Gandhi government introduced the 64th Constitutional Amendment Bill in the Lok Sabha in July 1989 to constitutionalize Panchayati Raj institutions and make them more powerful and comprehensive.
Although the Lok Sabha passed this bill in August 1989, it was not passed by the Rajya Sabha. The bill was vehemently opposed by the opposition as it had a provision to strengthen the center in the federal system.
VP Singh Govt: In November 1989, the National Front government headed by VP Singh assumed office and a 2-day conference of state chief ministers was held under the chairmanship of VP Singh.
The proposal to introduce a new constitution amendment bill was approved in the conference. As a result, a Constitution Amendment Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha in September 1990. But with the fall of the government, this bill also lapsed.
Narasimha Rao Government : The Congress government under the Prime Ministership of Narasimha Rao once again considered the matter of constitutionalization of Panchayati Raj.
It made a new proposal by removing the controversial provisions of the beginning and introduced a Constitution Amendment Bill in the Lok Sabha in September 1991. Eventually this bill was passed as the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act 1992 and came into effect on 24 April 1993.
Today, the system of Panchayati Raj in India is under this act “73rd Constitutional Amendment Act 1992”.
Articles on Panchayati Raj System and Local Self-Government are available in four sections, for specific information you must read them;
|◾ History of Panchayati Raj||Eng.|
|◾ Panchayati Raj: After Independence||Eng|
|◾ Municipal corporation, municipality||Eng|
|◾ Types of Urban Local Self-Government||Eng|
The Panchayati Raj system is a system of local self-government in India. It was established to provide a decentralized system of administration in the rural areas of the country.
The system is based on the traditional system of panchayats, or village councils, that have existed in India for centuries. Under the Panchayati Raj system, local government is organized at the village, intermediate (block or taluka) and district levels.
The objective of this system is to empower rural communities and give them more control over their own affairs.
◾ Panchayats are elected bodies, and their members are elected by the residents of the villages they serve.
Panchayats are responsible for a variety of functions, including the maintenance of local infrastructure, the provision of basic services, and the promotion of rural development.
So overall this is Article 40, I hope you have understood. To understand other article, you can use the link given below.
| Related Article
|Hindi Articles||English Articles|
|⚫ अनुच्छेद 39|
⚫ अनुच्छेद 41
|⚫ Article 39|
⚫ Article 41
|⚫ भारतीय संविधान|
⚫ संसद की बेसिक्स
⚫ मौलिक अधिकार बेसिक्स
⚫ भारत की न्यायिक व्यवस्था
⚫ भारत की कार्यपालिका
⚫ Basics of Parliament
⚫ Fundamental Rights
⚫ Judiciary in India
⚫ Executive in India
Disclaimer - The articles and their interpretations presented here are based on the original Constitution (latest edition), DD Basu's commentary on the Constitution (mainly) and various scholars of the Constitution (whose writings are available in newspapers, magazines and audio-visuals on the Internet). We have just tried to make it interesting and easy to understand.